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                                    中国打造三大城市群世界级机场群的机遇与挑战

                                    2016-08-30 16:10:27   
                                    字号:[大] [中] [小]

                                     商用民航机场作为国家重要公共交通基础设施,是民航产业发展载体和基础,同时机场枢纽在综合交通运输体系作用举足轻重。中国是仅次于美国的全球第二大民航大国,同时中国是全球民航业务量增量最大的区域。北京首都机场年旅客吞吐量已位居全球第二,上海浦东机场年货邮吞吐量位居全球第三,北上广三大机场国际枢纽地位明显提高。成都、深圳、昆明、西安、重庆、杭州、厦门、长沙、武汉、乌鲁木齐等机场的区域枢纽功能显著增强;上海虹桥、西安、郑州、武汉等一批大型机场成为国内重要的综合交通枢纽,中国机场在综合交通运输体系中的作用日益突出。但是中国主要机场在国际航空枢纽中的竞争力方面还存在不少差距和短板。

                                    一、中国建设规划中的三大世界级机场群

                                    2017NIAN2YUE13RI,GUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIYUANHUIYUZHONGGUOMINHANGJULIANHEYINFA《QUANGUOMINYONGYUNSHUJICHANGBUJUGUIHUA》。GAIGUIHUAZAI2008NIAN《QUANGUOMINYONGJICHANGBUJUGUIHUA》DEJICHUSHANG,ANZHAOTONGCHOUTUIJIN"WUWEIYITI"ZONGTIBUJUHEXIEDIAOTUIJIN"SIGEQUANMIAN"ZHANLVEBUJU,YIJICHUANGXIN、XIEDIAO、LVSE、KAIFANG、GONGXIANGFAZHANLINIANDEZONGTIYAOQIU,JIEHE"YIDAIYILU"、JINGJINJIXIETONGFAZHAN、ZHANGJIANGJINGJIDAISANDAZHANLVE,CONGZONGHEJIAOTONGYUNSHUTIXIFAZHANKAOLV,DUIMINYONGYUNSHUJICHANGJIANSHESHULIANG、KONGJIANBUJUDENGJINXINGLEDIAOZHENGWANSHAN,TICHULEYITIHUAXIANJIE、LVSEJIYUEFAZHANDENGZHENGCECUOSHI,XINGCHENGYUGAOSUTIELUYOUSHIHUBU、XIETONGFAZHANDEGEJU。GUIHUAMUBIAONIANWEI2025NIAN,ZHANWANGDAO2030NIAN,ZAISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGJIANGGENJUMINHANGYUNSHUNEIWAIBUTIAOJIANHEHUANJINGDEBIANHUA,SHISHIJINXINGBIYAODEXIUDINGHEDIAOZHENG。

                                    《QUANGUOMINYONGYUNSHUJICHANGBUJUGUIHUA》TICHUDEZHONGGUOJICHANGGUIHUAJIANSHEFAZHANMUBIAOWEI:2020NIAN,YUNSHUJICHANGSHULIANGDA260GEZUOYOU,BEIJINGXINJICHANG、CHENGDOUXINJICHANGDENGYIPIZHONGDAXIANGMUJIANGJIANCHENGTOUCHAN,SHUNIUJICHANGSHESHINENGLIJINYIBUTISHENG,YIPIZHIXIANJICHANGTOURUSHIYONG。2025NIAN,JIANCHENGFUGAIGUANGFAN、FENBUHELI、GONGNENGWANSHAN、JIYUEHUANBAODEXIANDAIHUAJICHANGTIXI,XINGCHENG3DASHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN、10GEGUOJISHUNIU、29GEQUYUSHUNIU。JINGJINJI、ZHANGSANJIAO、ZHUSANJIAOSHIJIEJIJICHANGQUNXINGCHENGBINGKUAISUFAZHAN,BEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUJICHANGGUOJISHUNIUJINGZHENGLIMINGXIANJIAQIANG,CHENGDOU、KUNMING、SHENZHEN、ZHONGQING、XIAN、WULUMUQI、HAERBINDENGGUOJISHUNIUZUOYONGXIANZHUZENGQIANG,HANGKONGYUNSHUFUWUFUGAIMIANJINYIBUKUODA。ZHANWANG2030NIAN,JICHANGBUJUJINYIBUWANSHAN,FUGAIMIANJINYIBUKUODA,FUWUSHUIPINGCHIXUTISHENG。

                                    快乐牛牛2016NIAN5YUE,MINHANGJU25RIZHENGSHIYINFA《GUANYUJINYIBUSHENHUAMINHANGGAIGEGONGZUODEYIJIAN》。YIJIANTICHUYAOMINGQUEJICHANGGONGNENGDINGWEI,YI《GUOWUYUANGUANYUCUJINMINHANGYEFAZHANDERUOGANYIJIAN》QUEDINGDEDAXINGGUOJISHUNIU、MENHUSHUNIUHEQUYUXINGSHUNIUWEILONGTOU,JIEHE"SHISANWU"GUIHUADESHISHI,DALITISHENGSHUNIUJICHANGZHONGZHUANGONGNENGHEZHONGXIAOJICHANGDESHUSONGZUOYONG,DAIDONGGUOJIAZONGHEJICHANGTIXIJIANSHE,XINGCHENGGONGNENGJIANQUAN、XIANGHUXIEDIAO、XIANGHUZHICHENGDEYUNSHUJICHANGWANGLUOYIJIFUGAIMIANGUANG、XIANJIEDUGAO、TONGDAXINGQIANGDEHANGXIANWANGLUO。《YIJIAN》TICHU,YIBEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUDENGDAXINGGUOJISHUNIUWEIHEXINZHENGHEQUYUJICHANGZIYUAN,SHIXIANQUYUJICHANGQUNYITIHUAFAZHAN,FUWUGUOJIADAZAOJINGJINJI、ZHANGSANJIAOHEZHUSANJIAODENGSHIJIEJICHENGSHIQUN,JIANSHESANDASHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN。SHUJIEBEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUDENGJICHANGFEIGUOJISHUNIUGONGNENG,YIBEIJINGSHOUDOUJICHANGWEISHIDIAN,YANJIUZHIDINGDAXINGGUOJISHUNIUHANGBANFENLIUBUCHANGJIZHI,YOUHUAHANGQUAN、HANGXIAN、HANGBANSHIKEJIEGOU,ZENGJIAGUOJIHANGXIANFUGAIMIANHEGUOJIZHONGZHUANBILI。

                                    ZHONGGUOMINYONGJICHANGBUJUGUIHUATICHUJIANSHEJINGJINJI、ZHANGSANJIAO、ZHUSANJIAODENGSANDASHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN。DUIYUJINGJINJIDIQU"ZENGQIANGBEIJINGJICHANGGUOJISHUNIUJINGZHENGLI,YUTIANJIN、SHIJIAZHUANGGONGTONGDAZAOJINGJINJISHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN";DUIYUZHANGSANJIAODIQU"ZENGQIANGSHANGHAIJICHANGGUOJISHUNIUDEJINGZHENGLI,YUHANGZHOU、NANJING、HEFEI、NINGBODENGJICHANGGONGTONGDAZAOZHANGSANJIAODIQUSHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN,BINGYUQITAJIAOTONGYUNSHUFANGSHIYOUSHIHUBU、SHENDURONGHE、HULIANHUTONG";DUIYUZHUSANJIAODIQU"TUIJINGUANGZHOU、SHENZHENDENGDIJICHANGZIYUANGONGXIANG、HEZUOGONGYING、XIETONGFAZHAN,TISHENGGUOJISHUNIUJINGZHENGLI,GONGTONGDAZAOZHUSANJIAODIQUSHIJIEJIJICHANGQUN"。

                                    ZHONGGUOTUIJINJIANSHEDESHIJIEJIJICHANGZHISHAOZAIQUANQIUGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUZHONGJUYOUYINGYOUDEDIWEI。JINGJINJICHENGSHIQUN、ZHANGSANJIAOCHENGSHIQUNHEZHUSANJIAOCHENGSHIQUNZUOWEIZHONGGUOJINGJIFAZHANDESANDAYINQING,ZAIZHONGGUODUIWAIKAIFANG、WENHUAJIAOLIU、CHANYEJUJI、JINGJIFAZHANDIWEITUCHU,DANSHIZHONGGUOSANDACHENGSHIQUNJIJICHANGQUNDEGUOJIDIWEIHAILUOHOUYUYATAIZHOUBIANDEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUCHENGSHIJICHENGSHIQUN。

                                    二、全球世界级城市群及其国际航空枢纽的发展特点

                                    CHENGSHIQUNSHIRENLEISHEHUIJUJIHUODONGDELISHIYANHUACHANWU。CHENGSHISHIYIGEQUYUDEZHONGXIN,TONGGUOJIHUAXIAOYINGJIZHONGLEDALIANGDECHANYEHERENKOU,HUODEKUAISUDEFAZHAN。SUIZHEGUIMODEKUODAHESHILIDEZENGQIANG,DUIZHOUBIANQUYUCHANSHENGFUSHEDAIDONGXIAOYING。XINGCHENGYIGEYOUYIGECHENGSHIQUANHUODOUSHIQUAN。BANSUIZHECHENGSHIGUIMODEKUODAHECHENGJIZHIJIANJIAOTONGTIAOJIANDEGAISHANYOUQISHIGAOSUGONGLUDECHUXIAN,XIANGLINCHENGSHIFUSHEDEQUYUBUDUANJIEJINBINGYOUBUFENZHONGHE,CHENGSHIZHIJIANDEJINGJILIANXIYUELAIYUEMIQIE,XIANGHUYINGXIANGYUELAIYUEDA,JIUKEYIRENWEIXINGCHENGLECHENGSHIQUN。CHENGSHIQUNSHICHENGSHIFAZHANDAOCHENGSHUJIEDUANDEZUIGAOKONGJIANZUZHIXINGSHI。CHENGSHIQUNZAITEDINGDEDIYUFANWEINEIJUYOUXIANGDANGSHULIANGDEBUTONGXINGZHI、LEIXINGHEDENGJIGUIMODECHENGSHI,YITUOYIDINGDEZIRANHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,YIYIGEHUOLIANGGETEDAHUOZHECHAODACHENGSHIZUOWEIDIQUJINGJIDEHEXIN,JIEZHUYUXIANDAIHUADEJIAOTONGGONGJUHEZONGHEYUNSHUWANGDETONGDAXING,YIJIGAODUFADADEXINXIWANGLUO,FASHENGYUFAZHANZHECHENGSHIGETIZHIJIANDENEIZAILIANXI,GONGTONGGOUCHENGDEYIGEXIANGDUIWANZHENGDE"JIHETI"。

                                    MUQIANZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIGONGRENDEDAXINGSHIJIEJICHENGSHIQUNYOUWUGE,FENBIESHI:MEIGUODONGBEIBUDAXIYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUN、BEIMEIWUDAHUCHENGSHIQUN、RIBENTAIPINGYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUN、YINGLUNCHENGSHIQUN、OUZHOUXIBEIBUCHENGSHIQUN。

                                    MEIGUODONGBEIBUDAXIYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUNSHIMEIGUOJINGJIDEHEXINDIDAI,ZHIZAOYECHANZHIZHANQUANGUODE 30 %,SHIGUONEIZUIDADESHENGCHANJIDI、SHANGYEMAOYIZHONGXINHESHIJIEZUIDADEGUOJIJINRONGZHONGXIN,BAOHANBOSHIDUN、NIUYUE、FEICHENG、BAERDEMO、HUASHENGDUNDENGCHENGSHI。QIZHONG,NIUYUESHISHIJIESANDAGUOJIJINRONGZHONGXINZHIYIHEZHUMINGDEDOUHUIQU。NIUYUESHIMIANJIWEI13.8WANPINGFANGGONGLI,ZHANMEIGUOMIANJIDE1.5%,RENKOUWEI6500WAN,ZHANMEIGUOZONGRENKOUDE20%,CHENGSHIHUASHUIPINGDADAO90%YISHANG。

                                    快乐牛牛BEIMEIWUDAHUCHENGSHIQUNFENBUYUBEIMEIMEIGUOHEJIANADAWUDAHUYANAN,BAOHANZHIJIAGE、DITELV、KELIFULAN、DUOLUNDUO、WOTAIHUA、MENGTELIER、KUIBEIKEDENGCHENGSHI,YUMEIGUODONGBEIBUDAXIYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUNGONGTONGGOUCHENGBEIMEIZHIZAOYEDAI。QIZHONG,ZHIJIAGESHIQUANQIUZHUMINGDEJINRONGZHONGXINZHIYI;DITELVSHIQUANQIUZHUMINGDEQICHECHENG。

                                    RIBENTAIPINGYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUNSHIRIBENJINGJIZUIFADADEDIDAI,SHIQUANGUOZHENGZHI、JINGJI、WENHUA、JIAOTONGDEZHONGSHU,BAOHANDONGJING、HENGBIN、JINGGANG、MINGGUWU、JINGDOU、DABAN、SHENHUDENGCHENGSHI,BAOHANLEYIDONGJING、DABAN、MINGGUWUWEIHEXINDESANGECHENGSHIQUAN,FENBUZHEQUANRIBEN80%YISHANGDEJINRONG、JIAOYU、CHUBAN、XINXIHEYANJIUKAIFAJIGOU。QIZHONG,DONGJINGSHISHIJIESANDAGUOJIJINRONGZHONGXINZHIYIHEZHUMINGDEDOUHUIQU。

                                    YINGLUNCHENGSHIQUNYIYINGGUOLUNDUN-LIWUPUWEIZHOUXIAN,BAOHANLUNDUN、LIWUPU、MANCHESITE、LIZI、BOMINGHAN、XIEFEIERDEDENGCHENGSHI。ZHEISHICHANYEGEMINGHOUYINGGUOZHUYAODESHENGCHANJIDI,QIZHONGLUNDUNXIANYICHENGWEIOUZHOUZUIDADEJINRONGZHONGXIN,TONGSHIYESHISHIJIEDESANDAGUOJIJINRONGZHONGXINZHIYI。

                                    OUZHOUXIBEIBUCHENGSHIQUNYOUFAGUOBALICHENGSHIQUN、BILISHI-HELANCHENGSHIQUN、DEGUOLAIYIN-LUERCHENGSHIQUNDENGGOUCHENG,BAOHANBALI、BULUSAIER、ANTEWEIPU、AMUSITEDAN、LUTEDAN、HAIYA、AISEN、KELONG、DUOTEMENGDE、BOEN、FALANKEFU、SITUJIATEDENGCHENGSHI。QIZHONG,BALISHIFAGUODEJINGJIZHONGXINHEZUIDADEGONGSHANGYECHENGSHI,YESHIXIOUZHONGYAODEJINRONGHEJIAOTONGZHONGXINZHIYI;LUTEDANSUYOU"OUZHOUMENHU"ZHICHENG;FALANKEFUSHIOUZHOUZHONGYAODEGONGSHANGYE、JINRONGHEJIAOTONGZHONGXIN。

                                    JICHANGQUNZESHIZHIYIYILIANGGEKONGYUZIYUANFENGFU、LIULIANGYALIJIAODADESHUNIUXINGJICHANGWEIHEXIN,ZHOUBIANLIANXIXIANGDUIJINMICHENGSHIZHONGGUIMOXIANGDUISHAOXIAODEJICHANGFUZHUHEXINJICHANGFENDANBUFENGUONEI、DUANCHENGHANGXIAN,BINGZHUJIANFUSHEDAOGENG"MAOXI"HANGKONGWANGLUODEXINGTAI。SHIJIEJIJICHANGQUNZONGSHIYUSHIJIEJICHENGSHIQUNXIANGBANERSHENG。JICHANGQUNZUOWEICHENGSHIQUNDEZHONGYAOJICHUSHESHI,YOUQISHICHENGSHIQUNZHONGDAXINGGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUCHENGWEICHENGSHIQUNDUIWAIKAIFANGQUANQIUZHENGZHIJINGJIHUDONGDEQIAOLIANGHEMENHU,JICHANGQUNCHENGWEICHENGSHIQUNJIAOTONGGONGNENGFAZHANZHONGYAOYINSU。

                                    MEIGUODONGBEIBUDAXIYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUN、RIBENTAIPINGYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUN、YINGLUNCHENGSHIQUNDOUSHIGUONEIZHUYAOCHENGSHIQUN,BEIMEIWUDAHUCHENGSHIQUN、OUZHOUXIBEIBUCHENGSHIQUNZESHIKUAGUOCHENGSHIQUN。

                                    MEIGUODONGBEIBUDAXIYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUNYONGYOUNIUYUEKENNIDIJICHANG、NIUWAKEJICHANG、HUASHENGDUNDULESIJICHANGDENGDAXINGGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU。QIZHONGNIUYUEYISHILIUCHANGNIANLVKETUNTULIANG1.27YIRENCI,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANG5000WANZUOYOU,HUASHENGDUNYISHISANCHANG,LVKETUNTULIANGJIEJIN6800WAN,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANG3000WANZUOYOU。BEIMEIWUDAHUCHENGSHIQUNYONGYOUZHIJIAGEAOHEIERJICHANG、DUOLUNDUOJICHANG。QIZHONGZHIJIAGEYISHILIANGCHANG,NIANLVKETUNTULIANG1YIZUOYOU。RIBENTAIPINGYANGYANANCHENGSHIQUNYONGYOUDONGJINGYUTIANJICHANGHECHENGTIANJICHANG、DABANGUANXIJICHANG。QIZHONGDONGJINGYISHILIANGCHANG,LVKETUNTULIANGCHAOGUO1.1YI。YINGLUNCHENGSHIQUNYONGYOULUNDUNXISILUOJICHANG、GAITEWEIKEJICHANGYIJIMANCHESITEJICHANG。QIZHONGLUNDUNYISHIWUCHANG,NIANLVKETUNTULIANG1.6YI,ZHANDAOYINGGUOQUANGUODESANFENZHIER。OUZHOUXIBEIBUCHENGSHIQUNYONGYOUBALIDAIGAOLEJICHANG、HELANAMUSITEDANJICHANG、DEGUOFALANKEFUJICHANGDENG,ZHEISHIOUZHOUDALUZUIZHUYAODEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU,FAGUOBALIYISHISANCHANG,LVKETUNTULIANG1YIZUOYOU。OUZHOUJICHANGGUOJIYEWULIANGWEIZHU,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGZHANBICHAOGUO95%YISHANG。

                                    QUANQIUWUDACHENGSHIQUNZHUYAOHEXINCHENGSHIDUOJICHANGBUJUCHENGWEICHANGTAI,TONGSHIGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUGUOJIHUACHENGDUHENGAO,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGYIJIGUOJIHANGKONGHUOWUTUNTULIANGFANYINGCHUQIQUANQIUHUAZHENGZHIJINGJISHEHUIDEXIYINLIHEYINGXIANGLI。

                                    三、美国主要城市群及主要航空枢纽的分布特征

                                    MEIGUOSHIQUANQIUMINHANGYUNSHUDIYIDAGUO,ERQIEMEIGUOHEZHONGGUOSHIYIYANGSHIGUONEISHICHANGHEGUOJISHICHANGLIANGWANGDEHANGKONGYUNSHUSHICHANG。SANSHINIANQIAN,MEIGUOYIJINGYONGYOU540YUJIASHANGYONGMINHANGJICHANG,MEIGUOMINYONGSHANGYEJICHANGKEYIYOUXIAOFUGAILINGTUMIANJI,BINGQIEJIBENBAOCHIWENDING。XIANGDUIYUDANGQIANZHONGGUO218JIAZUOYOUSHANGYONGMINHANGJICHANG,"SHISANWU"MOQIGUIHUADADAO260JIAMINYONGJICHANG。ZHONGMEILIANGGUOGUOTUMIANJIJIBENXIANGDANG,ZHONGGUORENKOUDAYUESHIMEIGUODESIBEIDUO。SHINIANQIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUOHANGKONGSHICHANGGUIMOCHAJUSHI30DAO35NIANZUOYOU,DANGQIANZHONGMEILIANGGUOHANGKONGSHICHANGDEGUIMOCHAJUSHI20NIANZUOYOU(ZHONGGUO2016NIANHANGKONGLVKEYUNSHULIANGHEHANGKONGLVKEZHOUZHUANLIANGDAYUEXIANGDUIYUMEIGUO1993NIANDAO1995NIANSHUIPING)。WEILAISHINIAN,ZHONGGUOJIANGCHAOYUEMEIGUOCHENGWEIQUANQIUZUIDADEHANGKONGSHICHANG。ZHONGGUOHANGKONGCHANYEGANCHAOMEIGUOYINLINGQUANQIUHANGKONGCHANYE,ZAIJICHANGJICHUSHESHIJIANSHEHEJICHANGBAOZHANGNENGLIFANGMIANHAICUNZAIHENDADEDUANBANHEJUDADEYALI,GENGHEKUANGJICHANGGUIHUAJIANSHECHENGSHUYUNYINGXUYAOYIGEBIJIAOZHANGDEZHOUQI。

                                    MEIGUOHANGKONGCHANYEDECHUANGXINFAZHANJINGYANSHIZHONGGUOMINHANGGANCHAODEXIANHUOYANGBENHEDIANXINGBIAOGAN。

                                    XIATU1SHIMEIGUOJIAOTONGBUGONGBUDE2015NIANMEIGUO50DAHANGKONGSHUNIUFENBUTU。

                                    图1:美国50大航空客运枢纽分布图(2015年)

                                    快乐牛牛KEYIKANDAO,MEIGUOHANGKONGSHUNIUZAIGUOTUFANWEINEIXIANGDUIBIJIAOPINGHENG,BINGQIEZHUBUXINGCHENGYINIUYUE、ZHIJIAGE、LUOSHANJIHEJIUJINSHAN、MAIAMI、XIUSIDUNDENGCHENGSHIWEIZHONGXINDECHENGSHIQUNHEJICHANGQUN,TONGSHIMEIGUOSHUNIUJICHANGXIANGDONGXIHAIANXIANJIZHONGFENBU,YOUQISHIGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU。

                                    2005NIANDAO2015NIANMEIGUO50DASHUNIUJICHANGTUNTULIANGZENGZHANG12.9%,ZENGSUGAOYUMEIGUOZHENGTIJICHANGTUNTULIANGZENGZHANGSUDUDE7.7%。50DASHUNIUJICHANGDESHICHANGJIZHONGDUYECONG80.83%TIGAODAO84.74%。2016NIANZHONGGUOHANGKONGSHICHANG50DAJICHANGANZHAOLVKETUNTULIANGDESHICHANGJIZHONGDUWEI92%,30DAJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGSHICHANGJIZHONGDUWEI81%,10DAJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGSHICHANGJIZHONGDU50%ZUOYOU。

                                    XIATU2SHI2016NIANMEIGUOSHIDAHANGKONGKEYUNSHUNIUDENGJILVKEQINGKUANG。

                                    图2:2016年美国十大客运航空枢纽

                                    快乐牛牛ANZHAODENGJILVKETONGJI(LVKETUNTULIANGDAYUESHIDENGJILVKELIANGDELIANGBEI)DE2016NIANNIANDUMEIGUOSHIDAHANGKONGKEYUNSHUNIUFENBIEWEI:YATELANDADENGJILVKE5044.8WAN,ZENGZHANG2.3%,PAIMINGDIYI,TONGSHIYATELANDAYESHIQUANQIULVKETUNTULIANGZUIDADEJICHANG。LUOSHANJI3926.8WAN,ZENGZHANG7.8%,PAIMINGDIER;ZHIJIAGEAOHEIER3729.8WAN,PAIMINGDISAN,ZENGZHANG2.9%;DALASIWOSIBAO3123.3WAN,PAIMINGDISI;NIUYUEKENNIDI2887.3WAN,PAIMINGDIWU;DANFO2820.8WAN,PAIMINGDILIU;JIUJINSHAN2554WAN,PAIMINGDIQI;LASIWEIJIASI2256.8WAN,PAIMINGDIQI;XIYATU2178.7WAN,ZENGZHANG8.2%,PAIMINGCONG2015NIANDI13SHENGWEIDIJIU;XIALUOTE2143.9WAN,PAIMINGDISHI。SHIDAJICHANGZHONGZHIYOUDANFOJUYUZHONGBUQUYU。

                                    快乐牛牛XIATU3SHI2016NIANMEIGUOSHIDAGUOJIHANGKONGKEYUNSHUNIUTONGJIQINGKUANG。

                                    图3:2016年美国十大国际客运航空枢纽

                                    2016NIANMEIGUOSHIDAGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUQUBIEYUGUONEISHIDAGUONEISHUNIU,ZHEISHIMEIGUOHANGKONGDEGUOJIJIAOLIUCHUANGKOU。QIZHONGNIUYUEKENNIDI2016NIANGUOJIDENGJILVKE1537.87WAN,ZENGZHANG4.1%,PAIMINGDIYI;NIUYUENIUWAKEJICHANGGUOJIDENGJILVKE588.11WAN,ZENGZHANG1.5%,PAIMINGDISI;HUASHENGDUNDULESIJICHANGGUOJIDENGJILVKE354.84WAN,ZENGZHANG1.8%,PAIMINGDISHI;YISHANGSANDAJICHANGCHUYUNIUYUEHUASHENGDUNCHENGSHIQUN,SHIMEIGUODEZHENGZHIJINGJIZHONGXINCHENGSHIQUN。LUOSHANJIJICHANGGUOJIDENGJILVKE1075.87WAN,ZENGZHANG8.9%,PAIMINGDIER;JIUJINSHANGUOJIDENGJILVKE586.46WAN,ZENGZHANG7.8%,PAIMINGDIWU。ZHEILIANGDAJICHANGWEIYUMEIGUOXIHAIAN,SHIMEIGUOJINGJICHUANGXINHEWENHUAFAZHANDEZHONGXINQUYU。WEIYUMEIGUODONGNANBUDEMAIAMIJICHANGSHIMEIGUOTONGWANGLAMEINANMEIQUYUDEZHUYAOKONGZHONGSHUNIU,GUOJIDENGJILVKE979.93WAN,XIAJIANG3.1%,PAIMINGDISAN。XIUSIDUNZESHIMEIGUOHANGTIANGONGYEZHONGXIN,XIUSIDUNBUSHENJICHANGHEDALASIWOSIBAOJICHANGTONGYANGJUYUNANBUJINGJIDAZHOUDEKESASIZHOU。ZHIJIAGEHEYATELANDASHIMEIGUODAXINGTESECHENGSHIHEQUYUZHONGXINCHENGSHI。

                                    MEIGUODEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUYIJINGYUGUONEIHANGKONGSHUNIUKAISHIZHUBUFENGONG,ERQIEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUXIANGYANHAIQUYUJIZHONG,TONGSHIXINGCHENGBUTONGDEQUYUKEHUTEDIAN。

                                    MEIGUOSHIDAGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU2016NIANZHENGTIGUOJIDENGJILVKE7172WAN,DAYUEZHANDAOMEIGUOZHENGTIGUOJILVKEDE68.48%。SHIDAGUOJISHUNIUGUOJILVKEZHANBIQINGKUANG,NIUYUEKENNIDI53.26%,MAIAMI47.93%,HUASHENGDUNDULESI33.38%,NIUYUENIUWAKE30.88%,LUOSHANJI27.4%,XIUSIDUN24.76%,JIUJINSHAN22.96%,ZHIJIAGEAOHEIER15.56%,DALASIWOSIBAO11.88%,YATELANDA11.04%。

                                    ZHONGGUODEHANGKONGSHUNIUSHANGCHUZAIBUDUANFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,SHANGWEIXINGCHENGGUONEIHEGUOJISHUNIUDEZHUANYEFENGONG。BEISHANGGUANGSANDASHUNIUJICHANGBUJINJINSHIGUONEIZUIDADESHUNIU,TONGSHIYESHIZUIDAGUOJISHUNIU,YIJIGUONEIHEGUOJIHUOYUNSHUNIU。JIUGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUERYAN,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGZHANBIGUONEIZHIYOUSHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGCHAOGUO40%,SHOUDOUJICHANGHEGUANGZHOUJICHANGCHAOGUO20%。BIJIAOERYAN,GUOJISHUNIUDEDUOYUANBUJUHEJUNHENGFAZHANYIJIGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUDEGUOJIHUAYINGXIANGLIFANGMIAN,ZHONGGUODEGUOJISHUNIUJICHANGJIANSHEFANGMIANCHAJUHAIHENDA。TONGSHIZHEIGENGYINGGAICHENGWEINEILUGUOJISHUNIUJIANSHEDEFAZHANJIYU,YOUQIDUIYUKUNMING、XIAN、ZHONGQING、CHENGDOU、WULUMUQI、HAERBINDENGGUOJIAGUIHUAZHONGDEGUOJISHUNIUCHENGSHI。

                                    四、中国建设世界级机场群发展建议

                                    ZHONGGUOMINHANGJUDE2016NIANDUTONGJISHUJUXIANSHI,2016NIANZHONGGUOMINHANGLVKEYUNSHULIANG4.8776YIRENCI,ZENGZHANG11.8%;QIZHONGGUONEI(HANGANGAOTAI)LVKEYUNSHULIANG4.3614YI,ZENGZHANG10.7%;GUOJILVKEYUNSHULIANG5162WAN,ZENGZHANG22.7%。2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOJINGNEIMINYONGHANGKONGBANZHENGJICHANGGONGYOU218GE(BUHANXIANGGANG、AOMENHETAIWANDIQUJICHANG),QIZHONGDINGQIHANGBANTONGHANGJICHANG216GE,DINGQIHANGBANTONGHANGCHENGSHI214GE。2016NIANZHONGGUOQUANNIANLVKETUNTULIANGWANCHENG10.1636YIRENCI,ZENGZHANG11.1%。QIZHONGGUONEIHANGXIANWANCHENG91401.7WANRENCI,BISHANGNIANZENGZHANG10.3% (QIZHONGNEIDIZHIXIANGGANG、AOMENHETAIWANDIQUHANGXIANWANCHENG2764.5WANRENCI,TONGBIXIAJIANG1.4%);GUOJIHANGXIANWANCHENG1.0234YIRENCI,BISHANGNIANZENGZHANG19.3%。

                                    ZHONGGUOSHIDAHANGKONGSHUNIUYIJISANDACHENGSHIQUNZHUYAOJICHANGYEWULIANGTONGJIJIANXIATU4。XIANGDUIYUQUANQIUDAXINGHANGKONGSHUNIUDEFAZHANSUDUZHONGGUOHANGKONGSHUNIUDEYEWULIANGHAISHIBAOCHIJIAOGAOSUZENGZHANG。

                                    图4:中国十大航空枢纽以及三大城市群主要机场业务量统计

                                    ZHONGGUOSHIDASHUNIU,ZHUYAOJUYUZHONGGUOSANDACHENGSHIQUNJINGJIQUYU,YIJIXIBUZHONGXINCHENGSHICHENGDOU、KUNMING、XIAN、ZHONGQING。ZHONGGUOSHIDAHANGKONGSHUNIUDEHANGKONGKEYUNJIZHONGDU48.71%,HANGKONGHUOYUNJIZHONGDU70.63%;SANSHIDAHANGKONGSHUNIUDEHANGKONGKEYUNJIZHONGDU81.01%,HANGKONGHUOYUNJIZHONGDU92.74%;WUSHIDAHANGKONGSHUNIUDEHANGKONGKEYUNJIZHONGDU92.12%,HANGKONGHUOYUNJIZHONGDU98.07%。ZHONGGUOHANGKONGSHUNIUHUOYUNJIZHONGDUBIKEYUNJIZHONGDUGENGGAO,TONGSHIQUYUPINGHENGFAZHANWENTIXUYAOZHONGDIANGUANZHUERZHUBUGAISHAN。CHENGDOU、ZHONGQING、KUNMING、XIANSHIZHONGGUOWEILAIGUIHUAZHONGDEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU,DANSHIGUOJIYEWULIANGHEHANGKONGHUOYUNDOUSHIDUANBAN,ZHEIYEYINGGAICHENGWEIYEWUCHIXUFAZHANDEFANGXIANGHEFALIDIAN。

                                    ZHONGGUOSHIDASHUNIUBAOKUOGANGAOTAIDIQUHANGBANDEGUOJIHUASHUIPINGBIJIAOERYANJIAODI!SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGBAOKUOGANGAOTAIDIQUDEGUOJIHANGBANZHANBI43.3%,BEIJINGSHOUDOUJICHANGGUOJIHUAZHANBI21.4%,GUANGZHOUBAIYUNJICHANGDEGUOJIHUAZHANBI19.6%,HANGZHOUJICHANGGUOJIHUAZHANBI11.5%。XIANJICHANGGUOJIHANGBANZHANBIZHIYOU4.1%,KUNMINGJICHANGGUOJIHANGBANZHANBIZHIYOU6.1%,ZHONGQINGJICHANGGUOJIHANGBANZHANBIZHIYOU6.2%,SHENZHENJICHANGGUOJIHANGBANZHANBIZHIYOU6.8%。ZAIANZHAOGUOJIHANGKONGLVKETUNTULIANGPAIMINGQUANQIUZUIDA20JIAGUOJIKEYUNSHUNIUZHONGZHONGGUOZUIDAGUOJIKEYUNSHUNIUPUDONGYEWEIJINRU。

                                    ZHUSANJIAOSHIZHONGGUOJINGJIDUIWAIKAIFANGDELINGTOUYANG,ZHUSANJIAOCHENGSHIQUNJICHANGQUNJINXIANGGANG、GUANGZHOUHESHENZHENSANDAJICHANGDELVKETUNTULIANGJIUCHAOGUO1.72YIRENCI,HUOYOUTUNTULIANG730WANDUN。ZHUSANJIAODIQUXIANGGANGJICHANGWULUNHANGKONGKEYUNHEHUOYUNDOUJUEDUILINGXIANYUGUANGZHOUBAIYUNJICHANGHESHENZHENBAOANJICHANG,XIANGGANGJICHANGDEGUOJIYEWULIANGWULUNKEYUNHAISHIHUOYUNGENGSHIZAIYATAIQUYUNEIDUZHANAOTOU。XIANGGANGJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDIBA,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDISAN,YATAIPAIMINGDIYI,HUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDIYI,GUOJIHUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDIYI。GUANGZHOUJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMING15,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGZAI50MINGYIHOU,HUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMING18,GUOJIHUOYUNTUNTULIANGPAIMINGZAI30MINGZHIWAI。SHENZHENJICHANGHUOYUNTUNTULIANGGUONEIPAIMINGDISI,DANSHIZHIYOUXIANGGANGDESIFENZHIYI,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGGENGSHIZHIYOUXIANGGANGJICHANGDELINGTOU。WEILAIZHONGGUODUIWAIKAIFANGHEQUANQIUHUAJINGJIDEYINGXIANGLIDEBUDUANSHENGHUA,GENGSHIJUBEIYATAIGUIGUQIZHIDEZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGDEQIAOTOUBAOSHENZHENHEGUANGZHOU,GUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIUGUOJIHUAKEYUNHUOYUNDEXUQIUWANGSHENGHEFAZHANBUKEHUSHI,JINGGUOXIANGGANGZHONGZHUANDEHANGKONGLVKEHEHANGKONGHUOWUWEILAITONGGUOSHENZHENHEGUANGZHOUZHIDAHANGXIANDEXIANGXIANGKONGJIANJUDA。YUXIANGGANGYIHEZHIGEDESHENZHENJICHANGDALIKAITUOGUOJIHANGXIAN,DALIFAZHANGUOJIKEYUNHUOYUNYEWU,GENGYINGGAIYOUGENGDADEDANDANG。TONGSHIWEILAIDUIYUSHENZHENJICHANGHEGUANGZHOUBAIYUNJICHANGDEZHUNDIANLV、SHENGCHANYUNYINGXIAOLVYIJIFUWUSHUIPINGHENENGLIYETICHUGENGDADEGUOJIHUAGUANLIFUWUJIEGUIDETIAOZHANHETISHENGYALI。

                                    快乐牛牛JINGJINJIBEIJINGSHOUDOUJICHANGYIZHIDUXIU,DANSHISHOUDOUJICHANGDEHUOYUNHEGUOJIYEWULUOHOUZHOUBIANDEHANGUOSHOUERRENCHUANJICHANGHERIBENDONGJINGCHENGTIANJICHANGYIJIZHANGSANJIAODESHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGHEZHUSANJIAODEXIANGGANGJICHANG。BEIJINGSHOUDOUJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDIER,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGZAI30MINGZHIHOU,LUOHOUYUYATAIQUYUDABUFENGUOJIADESHOUDOUCHENGSHI。BEIJINGSHOUDOUJICHANGHUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMING15,TONGYANGLUOHOUYUYATAIZHOUBIANDABUFENSHUNIUJICHANG,GUOJIHUOYUNTUNTULIANGGENGSHIWEIJINRUQIAN30。JIANSHEZHONGDEBEIJINGXINJICHANGJUYUJINGJINJIHEXINQUYU,ERQIEHUICHENGWEIZHONGGUOHONGQIAOZHIHOUDEGUONEINAIZHIYATAIZUIDADEZONGHEJIAOTONGSHUNIU,XIONGANXINQUHENGKONGCHUSHIGENGSHIJIADABEIJINGXINJICHANGGUOJIKAIFANGDEFAMA,BEIJINGXINJICHANGYIDINGHUIHUIDAILAIXINJIYUHEXIANGXIANGKONGJIAN,YOUQISHIGUOJIYEWULIANGHEZHONGGUOHUABEIQUYUHANGKONGHUOYUNLIANG。BEIJINGZUOWEIZHONGGUODEZHENGZHI、JINGJI、KEJIHEWENHUAZHONGXIN,WEILAIBEIJINGSHUANGSHUNIUGUOJIYEWULIANG(KEYUNHEHUOYUN)YINGGAIZHUBUDADAOBINGCHAOGUO30%,SHENZHIDADAO40%,ZHENGQUCHENGWEIYATAIQUYUZHUYAODEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU。TONGSHIBEIJINGZUOWEIZHONGGUODESHOUDOU,SHUANGSHUNIUJICHANGYINGGAIMANZUQUANGUORENMINYIJIGUONEIZHUYAOCHENGSHIZHIDATONGHANGDEMUBIAOYAOQIU。TIANJINJICHANGZUOWEIBEIJINGSHUANGSHUNIUGUOJIYEWUDEBUCHONG,TONGSHIGENGYINGGAIZAIHANGKONGHUOYUNFANGMIANFAHUIHAIYUNGANGKOUDENGZONGHEJIAOTONGXIETONGYOUSHI,FUWUJINGJINJIYITIHUACHANYEJUJIYUFUSHEJIAZHI。SHIJIAZHUANGJICHANGWEILAIDINGWEIYUQUYUSHUNIUHEDICHENGBENDAZHONGHUASHUNIU,DUIYUJINGJINJIZHENGTIHANGKONGYEWUDEWANZHENGYETAIYIYIZHONGDA,ERQIEFAZHANMIANXIANGJINGJINJIDEHANGKONGWULIUYESHISHIJIAZHUANGJICHANGJIAZHIZENGLIANGKONGJIAN。WEILAICHUYUXIONGANXINQUZHOUBIANBAODINGDIQUJIANSHEFAZHANGONGWUJIJICHANGDEXUQIUYEYUELAIYUEMINGXIANHEJINPO。

                                    快乐牛牛ZHANGSANJIAOSHANGHAIPUDONGHEHONGQIAOSHUANGXIONGLINGXIANZHONGGUOLONGTOU,SHANGHAICHENGWEIZHONGGUODIYIGEYISHILIANGCHANGDECHENGSHI,ERQIESHANGHAIYESHIZHONGGUOZUIDADESHANGYECHENGSHI,SHANGHAILIANGCHANGDEHANGKONGHUOYUNLINGXIANQUANGUO,SHANGHAILIANGCHANGDELVKETUNTULIANGYIJINGCHAOGUOBEIJING,TUPOYIYIRENCI。SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGSHIZHONGGUODALUZUIDADEGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU,HUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUDISAN,GUOJIHUOYUNTUNTULIANGQUANQIUDI4,BUJINJINLUOHOUYUXIANGGANG,ERQIELUOHOUYUHANGUORENCHUANJICHANG,SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGLVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMINGDIJIU,GUOJILVKETUNTULIANGQUANQIUPAIMING20ZHIHOU。SHANGHAIHONGQIAOYINWEISHOUDAODIYUKONGYUXIANZHI,JINLIANGNIANLVKETUNTULIANGYIJINGBEICHENGDOU、KUNMINGHESHENZHENCHAOYUE,WEILAIPUDONGDEJICHUSHESHIKUOJIANYECHENGWEIBIYAOZHIJU。SHANGHAIZHOUBIANHANGZHOU、NANJING、HEFEI、NINGBOYIJIWUXIDENGDOUYOUJIHUIBUWEIFAZHAN。SHANGHAISHIZHONGGUOZUIDACHENGSHIYIJIQUANQIUSHIDACHENGSHI,YATAIDIERDACHENGSHI,DANGQIANSHANGHAIGANGHAIYUNYEWULIANGYIJINGZHUBUCHAOYUEXIANGGANGHEXINJIAPOCHENGWEIYATAIZUIDADEGANGKOU,SHANGHAIPUDONGJICHANGYINGGAINULIFAZHANCHENGWEIYATAIQUYUDIYIDAGUOJIHANGKONGSHUNIU,YINLINGZHANGSANJIAOJINGJIFAZHANYIJIZHONGGUOZHANGSANJIAOCHENGSHIQUNQUANQIUHUAFAZHAN,WEIYATAIZUIDADEHANGYUNZHONGXINZUOCHUGONGXIAN。

                                    ZHONGGUOMINHANGCHANYEGUIMOSUIRANJUYUQUANQIUDIER,DANSHIANZHAOGUOJILVKEZHOUZHUANLIANGTONGJIJIEGUOZHONGGUOPAIMINGYIRANLUOHOUYUALIANQIU、YINGGUOHEDEGUO,PAIMINGDIWU。ANZHAOGUOJIHANGKONGLVKETUNTULIANGTONGJI,ZHONGGUODALUDEGUOJILVKEYUNSHULIANGZHIYUYINDUXIANGDANG。ZHONGGUOMINHANGDEGUOJIHUAFAZHANSHIZHONGGUOMINHANGCHANYEJIANKANGCHENGZHANGDEGUANJIANRENWU,TONGSHIZHONGGUOMINHANGDEGUOJIHUAFAZHANYESHIZHONGGUOSHENRUGAIGEKAIFANG,SHIXIAN"YIDAIYILU""ZIMAOQU""JINGJIDAI"GUOJIAZHANLVEDEZUIDADANDANG。(ZHAOWEI,ZHONGGUOMINHANGGUANLIGANBUXUEYUAN JIAOSHOU)

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